The Appendix Cancer Connection
a 501(c) 3 non-profit corporation devoted to
providing education, support and hope to those diagnosed with Appendix Cancer
and Peritoneal Surface Malignancies

INFORMATION

Main Page/Survivor Story
Medical Disclaimer   
About Appendix Cancer
FAQs
Conversations with a Survivor: My Blog  

TYPES OF APPENDIX CANCER

Malignant Carcinoid
Mucinous Adenocarcinoma and Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)
Adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoid (Goblet Cell Carcinoid)
Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma (Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma)

TREATMENT

Physicians and Facilities Treating Appendix Cancer
Cytoreduction Surgery
Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal  Chemotherapy (HIPEC)
Complications of Cytoreduction Surgery and HIPEC
Systemic (IV) Chemotherapy for Appendiceal Cancer
After Treatment Follow-Up

MORE INFORMATION

Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
Colostomy Information
Herbal and Complimentary Care
Hospice Care

PERITONEAL (ABDOMINAL) CANCER

Peritoneal Surface Malignancy
Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Staging of Peritoneal Cancer

ASSISTANCE

Clinical Trials
General Practical Assistance (Travel, Insurance, Medical Bills) 

THE EMOTIONAL BATTLE

Right foot, Left Foot, Breathe.....




   


 
  
        

 
  
 

 


Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix

 Tumor:

  • Adenocarcinoma of the appendix is similar to adenocarcinoma of the colon, and is referred to as "colonic- type" adenocarcinoma of the appendix.  This tumor behaves more like colon cancer in that it more commonly metastasizes (spreads) by way of the lymph nodes or bloodstream.  Some medical literature states that in 37% of cases the cancer has already spread into the abdominal cavity when it is first discovered.

Symptoms: 

  • Most often the first symptom of this cancer is appendicitis.  In as many as 50% of cases the tumor perforates (goes through the wall of or "ruptures") the appendix.  In other cases it is first discovered as a mass in the  lower right side of the abdomen.  In some cases the first symptoms are pain in the abdomen or ascites.  Only 10 to 20% of cases are discovered unexpectedly when abdominal surgery is being done for another reason.   In cases of appendiceal perforation (rupture), the peritoneal cavity (inside of the abdomen) is assumed to be "seeded" with cancer cells, with a high chance of future tumor growth in the abdomen  from these cancer  "seeds".  Metastasis to ovaries in females is also common, and in many cases the first sign of this disease in  females is a mass on an ovary.

Treatment:  

  • Treatment for this type of appendix cancer is  surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy) with removal of up to half of the right side of the large colon (right hemicolectomy).  There is disagreement in medical  literature in regards to recommending preventative surgical removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes in women to prevent this cancer from occurring there as this is commonly a site to where the cancer spreads.  
     

  • In some literature intraperitoneal chemotherapy (chemotherapy liquid directly into the abdomen) is recommended in addition to a right hemicolectomy even if there are no other tumors in the abdomen, especially for intermediate and high grade tumors or in cases of perforation (rupture) of the appendix.
     

  • cytoreduction surgery  and intraoperative hyperthermic chemotherapy are recommended for peritoneal metastasis or peritoneal carcinomatosis (cancerous tumors that have spread into the abdominal cavity)
     

  • treatment with systemic chemotherapy (IV Chemotherapy, or chemotherapy given into the veins) that is commonly used to treat colon cancer is also often used for this "colonic-type" appendix cancer.  Formal studies have not been done to show if there is an advantage of this chemotherapy for appendix adenocarcinoma since the disease is so rare, but based on the similarities between this type of appendix cancer and colon cancer, it is assumed to be helpful.  Some of the IV chemotherapy drugs commonly used are 5-FU, leucovoran, Oxaliplatin and Camptosar (irinotecan).  Avastin is also sometimes added.  Avastin is not a chemotherapy drug, it is a monoclonal antibody that is anti-angiogenic; meaning it interferes with the growth of new blood vessels which provide nutrients to the tumor.  See Systemic (IV) Chemotherapy for Appendiceal Cancer

Risk Factors: 

  • Disease is more common in men than women with a 3:1 to 2:1 ratio.  Occurs most commonly in people 60-70 years old.  

Prognosis:  

  • Overall survival statistics in some literature are stated as 40-50%, but up to 80% 5 year survival in some cases reported with Dukes Stage A (see American Cancer Society, Inc.-Staging of Colon and Rectal Cancers).

  • Other medical journal articles suggest survival rates up to 80% are possible even in cases when the cancer has spread into the abdomen  if surgery is able to remove all of the cancer in the abdomen (called complete cytoreduction as all of the visible cancer is completely removed) and is  combined with heated chemotherapy solution circulated in the abdomen at the time of cytoreduction surgery  (this is called intraoperative hyperthermic peritoneal chemotherapy ).  Clinical trials are in progress to evaluate the long-term outcome of this therapy combining surgery with chemotherapy into the abdomen.

Related Links

New standard of care for appendiceal epithelial neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome?

Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma: Long-Term Outcomes After Surgical Therapy

About Appendix Cancer

Atlas of Appendix Cancer

Tumors of the Appendix 2000

This website is for informational and educational purposes only. Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources. The information on this website is not complete and not intended to replace medical advice offered by physicians or health care providers.  Patients and consumers should review the information carefully with their professional health care provider.  

Copyright 200- 2010 C. Langlie-Lesnik  RN BSN  All rights Reserved   

Last Updated   02/12/2010 12:50:08 PM